ASTM, ASME or ANSI?
Who is ASME?
Founded in 1880 as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, today ASME International is a non-profit educational and technical organization with more than 120,000 members worldwide.
The aim of ASME is to promote art, science and allied science and the practice of mechanical and multi-disciplinary engineering. ASME has developed several codes and standards to enhance public safety and productivity of Engineers.
ASME Codes and Standards
ASME codes and standards were developed to enhance the public safety and productivity of the engineers.
The ASME standards are the sort of technical guides for the designers, manufacturers and users regarding the usage of the product. Some of these standards are written in few paragraphs, while others may run into multiple pages.
ASME codes set the guidelines for the mechanical engineers to follow to common system of manufacturing not only in US but also in the countries that have adopted ASME standards.
However, the manufacturers, inspectors and installers cannot be forced to use the ASME codes and standards, as they are only the guidelines. They will become compulsory only if they have been included in the contract.
The ASME standards are effective because they have been universally accepted. Their use makes communication between the manufacturers and users faster and more effective.
Further, the customers will get the same product no matter where they purchase from if they are standard products. For example, if you have purchased a Weld Neck flange in Houston, if it is standardized item, no matter where you purchase a Blind flange from, it will fit on the flange purchased in Houston.
A Standard can be defined as a set of technical definitions and guidelines that function as instructions for designers, manufacturers, operators, or users of equipment.
A standard becomes a Code when it has been adopted by one or more governmental bodies and is enforceable by law, or when it has been incorporated into a business contract.
B16.10: Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves
This Standard covers face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of straightway Valves, and center-to-face and center-to-end dimensions of angle Valves.
Its purpose is to assure installation interchangeability for Valves of a given material, type size, rating class, and end connection.
B16.11: Forged fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
This Standard covers ratings, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, marking and material requirements for socket-welding and threaded forged fittings.
These fittings are designated as Class 2000, 3000, and 6000 for threaded end fittings and Class 3000, 6000, and 9000 for socket-weld end fittings.
B16.20: Metallic gaskets for pipe flanges: Ring-Joint, Spiral-wound, and Jacketed
This Standard covers materials, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, and markings for metal ring-joint gaskets, spiral-wound gaskets, and metal-jacketed gaskets.
These gaskets are dimensionally suitable for use with flanges described in reference flange standards ASME B16.5, ASME B16.47, API Specification 6A, and ISO 10423.
This Standard covers spiral-wound metal gaskets and metal-jacketed gaskets for use with raised-face and flat-face flanges.
B16.21: Nonmetallic Flat gaskets for pipe flanges
This Standard covers types, sizes, materials, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, and markings for nonmetallic flat gaskets. These gaskets are dimensionally suitable for use with flanges described in the referenced flange standards.
B16.25: Buttwelding Ends
This Standard covers the preparation of buttwelding ends of piping components to be joined into a piping system by welding. It includes requirements for welding bevels, for external and internal shaping of heavy-wall components, and for preparation of internal ends (including dimensions and dimensional tolerances). Coverage includes preparation for joints with the following: no backing rings; split or noncontinuous backing rings; solid or continuous backing rings; consumable insert rings; gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of the root pass.
B16.28: Wrought steel Buttwelding Short Radius elbows and Returns
Note: This Standard is replaced by ASME B16.9
B16.34: Valves Flanged, Threaded and Welding End
This standard applies to new construction and covers pressure-temperature ratings, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, materials, nondestructive examination requirements, testing, and marking for cast, forged, and fabricated flanged, threaded, and welding end and wafer or flangeless Valves of steel, nickel-base alloys, and other alloys shown in Table 1.
Wafer or flangeless Valves, bolted or through-bolt types, that are installed between flanges or against a flange are treated as flanged-end Valves. Alternative rules for NPS 2.1/2 and smaller Valves are given in Mandatory Appendix V.
B16.36: Orifice Flanges
This Standard covers flanges (similar to those covered in ASME B16.5) that have orifice pressure differential connections.
Coverage is limited to the following: (a) Welding Neck flanges Classes 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 (b) slip-on and threaded Class 300.
B16.47: Large diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60 metric/inch standard
This Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, marking, and testing for pipe flanges in sizes NPS 26 through NPS 60 and in ratings Classes 75, 150, 0300, 400, 600, and 900. Flanges may be cast, forged, or plate (for blind flanges only) materials, as listed in Table 1A. Requirements and recommendations regarding bolting and gaskets are also included.
Note: ASME has incorporated most of the MSS-SP44 specification into B16.47 Series A and most of the API 605 Specification into B16.47 series B. They have also added Blinds to these two specs. You may note that these specs include only Weld Necks and Blinds.
For other flanges over NPS 24 you must refer to either Industry Standard (which are not automatically covered by ASME) or Boiler Code Flanges. If you need help deciding which flange best suits your application feel free to contact me.
B16.48: Line Blanks
This Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, marking, and testing for operating line blanks in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 for installation between ASME B16.5 flanges in the 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 Pressure Classes. The dimensions are suitable for blanks made of materials listed in Table 1.
B16.49: Factory-made, Wrought Steel, Buttwelding Induction Bends for Transportation and Distribution systems
This Standard covers design, material, manufacturing, testing, marking, and inspection requirements for factory-made pipeline bends of carbon steel materials having controlled chemistry and mechanical properties, produced by the induction bending process, with or without tangents.
This standard covers induction bends for transportation and distribution piping applications (e.g., ASME B31.4, B31.8, and B31.11). Process and power piping have differing requirements and materials that may not be appropriate for the restrictions and examinations described herein, and therefore are not included in this Standard.
B16.5: Pipe Flanges and flanged fittings: NPS 1/2 through 24
This Standard covers pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, dimensional tolerances, marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings.
Included are: flanges with rating class designations 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24, with requirements given in both metric and U.S.
Customary units with diameter of bolts and flange bolt holes expressed in inch units; flanged fittings with rating class designation 150 and 300 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24, with requirements given in both metric and U.S.
Customary units with diameter of bolts and flange bolt holes expressed in inch units; and flanged fittings with rating class designation 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 that are acknowledged in Annex G in which only U.S. Customary units are provided.
This Standard is limited to flanges and flanged fittings made from cast or forged materials, and blind flanges and certain reducing flanges made from cast, forged, or plate materials.
Also included in this Standard are requirements and recommendations regarding flange bolting, flange gaskets, and flange joints.
B16.9: Factory-made Wrought Buttwelding fittings
This Standard covers overall dimensions, dimensional tolerances, ratings, testing, and markings for wrought carbon and alloy steel factory-made buttwelding fittings of NPS 1/2 through 48. It covers fittings of any producible wall thickness. This standard does not cover low pressure corrosion resistant buttwelding fittings. See MSS SP-43, Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings.
B1.20.1: Pipe threads, general purpose, inch
This American National Standard covers dimensions and gaging of pipe threads for general purpose applications.B1.20.1 is a revision and redesignation of ANSI B2.1-1968.
B1.20.2M: Pipe threads, 60 deg. general purpose (metric)
ASME B.1.20.2M-2006; Pipe Threads, 60 deg, General Purpose (Metric) Standard is a metric conversion of the widely accepted ASME B1.20.1-1983; Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch) Standard NPT Taper Pipe Threads. The ASME B1 Standards Committee prepared this metric translation in order to encourage global use and acceptance of the NPT Pipe Thread. For ease of use, product threads and gauging are contained in the Standard. There are no changes to the thread or gage designs.
B36.10M: Welded and Seamless wrought steel pipe
This standard covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought steel pipe for high or low temperatures and pressures. The word pipe is used as distinguished from tube to apply to tubular products of dimensions commonly used for pipeline and piping systems. Pipe NPS 12 (DN 300) and smaller have outside diameters numerically larger than corresponding sizes. In contrast, the outside diameters of tubes are numerically identical to the size number for all sizes.
B36.19M: Stainless Steel pipe
This Standard covers the standardization of dimensions of welded and seamless wrought stainless steel pipe. The word pipe is used as distinguished from tube to apply to tubular products of dimensions commonly used for pipeline and piping systems. Pipe dimensions of sizes 12 and smaller have outside diameters numerically larger than the corresponding size. In contrast, the outside diameters of tubes are numerically identical to the size number for all sizes. The wall thicknesses for sizes 14 through 22 inclusive of Schedule 10S, for size 12 schedule 40S, and for sizes 10 and 12 of schedule 80S are not the same as those of ANSI/ASME B36.10. The suffix "S" in the Schedule Number is used to differentiate B36.19M pipe from B36.10M pipe. ANSI/ASME B36.10 includes other pipe thicknesses which are also commercially available with stainless steel material.
Who is ASTM?
Organized in 1898, ASTM International is one of the world's largest international standards developing organizations.
At ASTM International, producers, users, consumers, and others from all over the world join together to develop voluntary consensus standards. ASTM standards are developed under a process that embraces the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement principles. The ASTM standards development process is open and transparent, allowing individuals and governments to participate directly, and as equals, in a global consensus decision.
Thirty thousand ASTM members from 125 countries bring their technical expertise to the development of ASTM's 12,000 international standards. These standards are used and accepted worldwide and cover areas such as metals, paints, plastics, textiles, petroleum, construction, energy, the environment, consumer products, medical services and devices, and electronics.
Development of Standards
The open process in which ASTM standards are developed is one reason why so many and such a broad range of industries have done their diverse standards development work within ASTM International.
Professionals from all over the globe participate in the ASTM system which recognizes technical expertise, not country of origin. With a high level of technical quality at the core of the ASTM standard, almost 50 percent of ASTM standards are distributed outside the United States.
To facilitate broad global input, ASTM International uses online technologies that encourage open participation and responsiveness to industry needs. They include Internet-based Standards Development Forums enabling 24/7 access worldwide, on-line balloting, electronic minutes and templates, virtual meetings, and state-of-the- art distribution methods.
Services of ASTM International
In addition to this accommodating standards development atmosphere, ASTM International provides services that expand the knowledge and application of standards. ASTM's programs include symposia, proficiency testing programs, publications in a variety of formats, and technical training courses. ASTM publishes a monthly magazine, Standardization News, which covers the topic of standards development around the world.
Use of standards
The standards of ASTM International are used in research and development, quality systems, product testing and acceptance, and commercial transactions all around the globe. They are integral components of today's competitive business strategies.
Annual book of ASTM
The Annual Book of ASTM Standards for Steel consists of 8 volumes. It contains formally approved ASTM standard classifications, guides, practices, specifications, test methods and terminology and related material such as proposals. These terms are defined as follows in the Regulations Governing ASTM Technical Committees.
Steel Pipes, Tubes and Fittings
Steel Plates for General Structure
Steel Plates for Boiler and Pressure Vessels
Steels for Machine Structural Use
Steels for Special Purposes
The following data is given for each standard:
Standard number and year
Mechanical properties (yield point, tensile strength, notch toughness)
When deemed useful, steel type, manufacturing method, thickness of plate, heat treatment, and other data are described.
Commonly used ASTM standards for Pipes, Valves & Fittings;
A53 - Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
A105 - Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications
A106 - Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A182 - Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
A193 - Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications
A194 - Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both
A216 - Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Suitable for Fusion Welding, for High-Temperature Service
A217 - Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing Parts, Suitable for High-Temperature Service
A234 - Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
A312 - Standard Specification for Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes
A320 - Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service
A333 - Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-Temperature Service
A335 - Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A350 - Standard Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components
A351 - Standard Specification for Castings, Austenitic, for Pressure-Containing Parts
A352 - Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Ferritic and Martensitic, for Pressure-Containing Parts, Suitable for Low-Temperature Service
A403 - Standard Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
A420 - Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service
A530 - Standard Specification for General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe
ANSI B16 or ASME B16 or both?
Many (pro?)fessionals, suppliers and manufacturers often talk about ANSI flanges, ANSI fittings etc. Just do a search on any Standards providers’ website for ANSI B16.5, ANSI B16.9, ANSI B16.10 etc. You will not find that standards, because they do not exist. Many years ago there was, as an example, a ANSI B16.5 standard. In 1988 it became ANSI/ASME B16.5 and in 1996 it became ASME B16.5. However, there are still many suppliers and manufacturers that refer to ANSI or ANSI/ASME and that's not correct.